In the United States and Canada, the term learning disability is used to refer to psychological and neurological conditions that affect a person's communicative capacities and potential to be taught effectively.
The term includes such conditions as dysgraphia (writing disorder), dyslexia (reading disorder), dyscalculia (mathematics disorder) and developmental aphasia.
In the United Kingdom, the term learning disability is used more generally to refer to developmental disability.
Someone with a learning disability does not necessarily have low or high intelligence, nor any innate inability to learn.
It just means this individual has an impairment to their ability due to a processing disorder, such as auditory processing or visual processing, that is detrimental to learning from traditional teaching methods.
Learning disabilities are usually identified by school psychologists through testing of intelligence, academics and processes of learning.